The ACE Intelligence Website at http://www.aceintelligence.com/detailed_history_of_iq.php, gives a fairly detailed history of IQ testing following various individuals important in test development including a few prior to Binet.
The IQ Test Center at http://www.iqtest-center.com/history.php provides a brief history of testing similar to many textbooks.
Classics in the History of Psychology (http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/author.htm) have a number of the original articles on intelligence testing. They include:
Baldwin, James Mark, Cattell, James McKeen, & Jastrow, Joseph. (1898). Physical and mental tests. Psychological Review, 5, 172-179.
Binet, Alfred. (1916). New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals. In E. S. Kite (Trans.), The development of intelligence in children.
Cattell, James McKeen. (1890). Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 15, 373-381.
Terman, Lewis M. (1916). The uses of intelligence tests. From The measurement of intelligence (chapter 1).